Many people have seen, or heard of, the discovery of faces on Mars. Often they are sceptical about this. One common objection is the faces look too much like us, so researchers are recognizing faces in the terrain that aren’t there. This has also been an objection to possible discoveries of bones, statues, even small animals. Historically though people have believed in a Martian civilization, whether still existing or extinct. This was explored in many science fiction books from Edgar Rice Burroughs and Arthur C. Clarke to Robert Heinlein. Many expected Mars to be habitable when the Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft went to Mars in 1969. What was found instead has a near airless world that appeared to have never been inhabited. The conventional wisdom was turned on its head, that Mars had never been inhabited and probably never had any life at all.
From this time forward the mainstream scientific opinion was that Mars had never been inhabited, so anything that looked artificial was just people seeing things. This is called pareidolia, seeing illusory faces and animals often in clouds and random patterns. The problem now was that spacecraft imagery was low resolution and could only map the surface of Mars very slowly. So if signs of an extinct Martian civilization did get imaged then they would likely be ambiguous and be dismissed as fringe science and illusions. But these anomalies have kept turning up as the spacecraft imagery became higher in resolution, able to see buildings if they existed. Mars is largely mapped now to a fairly high resolution so many unusual formations have been found. The situation has also become like looking for shapes in inkblots, some use their imaginations too much and see things that really are not there. But other formations are not so easily dismissed.
Another complication is that this hypothetical Martian civilization would have died out billions of years ago. This is because Mars had a warm climate and oceans long ago, but being further from the sun it cooled with the atmosphere and oceans freezing at the poles. With billions of years of erosion many possibly artificial formations look natural over time. The evidence has then been ambiguous and highly eroded, but with thousands of possible artefacts being found.
It became necessary to try to connect these ambiguous formations together into a global hypothesis. If there was a Martian civilization then it likely covered most of Mars, life tends to extend to wherever it can survive. Sentient creatures learn to tame the climate and can live in wider temperature ranges, also where water is plentiful or scarce. We should expect a hypothetical Martian civilization to do the same.
This series of books then aims to connect all this evidence into a global hypothesis. Emphasizing that this is a speculative endeavour, the author tries to show how all this evidence connects together into a global Martian ecosystem and civilization. The books are called Martian Hypotheses to point out clearly the speculative nature of this. Also the commentary on each image is headlined with the word Hypothesis. This is to enable the global hypothesis to be explained without having to constantly preface it with words like perhaps, possibly, maybe, etc.
The main methods used with these hypotheses are falsification, the law of large numbers, and the reduction to the absurd. Falsification means that the null hypothesis, that these formations are random geology, cannot be true. This is because geology perhaps could not create structures like this. The other method is the law of large numbers. That there are too many of these structures to be from the occasional coincidence. For example the parabola appears to have been used extensively in these formations, it has been used on Earth in many dams because of its load bearing properties. It is also used in parabolic domes. In these Martian formations there are 945 parabolas which are shown and outlined. These outlines are from geometric parabolic shapes, in some causes they might be widened or narrowed. This does not affect their load bearing properties, they are still described by a simple mathematical formula y=ax2 where a is a variable. This is a large number, there are formations like dams in many craters and most of them are parabolas as will be shown. It would seem highly unlikely that they eroded into parabolic shapes as these dams are formed in many different ways. Parabolas are not known to be associated naturally with formations like these. In some cases a reduction to the absurd might be applicable. This might be hard to define scientifically but it may be apparent to some readers that a natural explanation is absurd. This should be used with some caution as some patterns can form by random chance or be illusions. However the human eye is good at seeing real patterns and is not so easily fooled.
One advantage of a global hypothesis is many different hypothetical formations can connect together. In many cases the ubiquitous appearance of parabolas can imply some natural looking formations might be artificial. The books try to connect these parabolas where they appear to this global hypothesis. So some hypothetical buildings have parabolas as part of their shape, this might imply formations of those kinds are also artificial. This extends the hypothesis into formations that appear artificial but do not contain parabolas. Most dam formations in craters are parabolic, but some may be using other construction techniques. By having these other dams near parabolic dams it further extends the hypothesis. Some water channels appear to be canals, similar to the claims of Percival Lowell which were found to be illusions. However many of these canals have parabolas in their shapes, this can extend the hypothesis further into other canal formations without parabolas. In this global hypothesis then the appearance of parabolas, and sometimes circles, ellipses, and hyperbolas serves to connect it together. The following sections show examples of the various formations that will be examined in depth. All images in these books were discovered by the author unless otherwise stated. To keep this introduction to a reasonable length the explanations here will be short, but these images are discussed in length in the various books.
One of the problems with the evidence accumulated has been the discovery of hypothetical Martian Faces. That they appear to look like us raises the suspicion of pareidolia, like seeing faces in clouds. However Mars and Earth would have had their ecosystems connected by panspermia, this is where life can be transferred from one planet to another by meteors. We may then have had similar a similar genetic background, and so plants and animals may have evolved to look similar on both planets. The Queen Face was discovered by the author recently, it is close to the Cydonia Face which was the first Martian Face discovered in 1976. There are about 30 Martian faces of varying degrees of plausibility. Some might see these reducing to the absurd, that the idea these could all form naturally as absurd in a way that is hard to define. Others might see the number of faces as statistically significant, a product of the law of large numbers. Still other might be unconvinced or believe they are random or illusory.
Most of the Martian Faces are found in a small valley in Libya Montes, near the better known Crowned or King Face. This is often referred to as the King’s Valley, a similar name to the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. The High Face is named because it is high on a cliff overlooking the valley. The faces are discussed in two papers in Martian Hypotheses Volume 11.
This face was discovered in a Viking image by a Martian researcher Terry James. It is also discussed in Volume 11.
This face was discovered by JP Levasseur, it is discussed in Volume 11. The two inserts are from higher resolution images that were recently taken by the HiRise orbiter. It missed the whole face but shows some of the hat and face.
The King Face was discovered by the author in June 2000. It has been called the Crowned Face, however with the discovery of the feminine looking Queen Face the name king Face may be more appropriate. Whether they had sexes or we could tell the difference is another hypothesis.
In many craters there are formations that look like dams, these seem to follow an old Martian equator implying that water may have been liquid in an equatorial zone. This equator hypothesis is discussed more in Volumes 11 and 12. Most of these dams are parabolic in shape, the hypothesis is that parabolas are well suited for load bearing in dams. From here the analysis from the book is including with each example image.
These dams are in the same crater, A which appears parabolic and B have smooth walls with a few cracks as shown. B at 4 o’clock has a sharp edge to the dam wall in good condition. C at 4 and 6 o’clock show a secondary dam perhaps to catch the overflow, the second line at 6 o’clock shows the base of this wall. D shows another section, perhaps parabolic, with a cracked wall at 5 o’clock. C at 10 o’clock shows a probable parabolic arch. There appear to be faint vertical ridges on the upper part of the dam walls as seen in other dams, these may be for strengthening the wall such as there being pillars inside.
A parabola is shown.
A shows how the skin on the dam wall is peeled off, at 3 o’clock is has many pits like on the skin of hollow hills. At 4 o’clock this rough interior is exposed but just below it the skin is smooth. At 6 o’clock is another edge of the smooth skin. B shows at 8 o’clock. How it is peeling off, at 5 o’clock it is more stable. At 10 o’clock there are many pits as it degrades, at 2 o’clock it shows the lip of the dam has broken off. C shows a smooth area that goes up to the broken lip of the dam wall like an external layer, perhaps a patch.
A parabola is shown.
Engineers might examine how this wall is fracturing at A to D, Also D at 2 o’clock shows the thicker base holding the dam wall in place.
A parabola is shown.
An unusual shape pointing up the crater wall, A is one dam, B shows some creep in the dam at C. D at 7 o’clock shows the smooth dam floor compared to the ground above it. At 2 o’clock the wall is eroded or breaking.
This shows 4 parabolas making up the formation.
Eighteen parabolic dams are shown. A few others are too eroded to determine their shape.
Some areas near hypothetical Martian buildings and dams have these canal like formations. The hypothesis is that water was important in this civilization, they used dams in craters to collect water often associated with water channels and perhaps pipes. In another areas canals may have brought water from the lakes and oceans, perhaps irrigating farming and residential areas or even for transport using boats. This is what we use canals for on Earth.
More of these tube shapes, A shows dark spots along it like it is breaking up. B at 9 o’clock is like a hollow hill as seen in many other areas, the dark patch on top may be the roof. B at 5 o’clock shows more collapsed areas. C at 7 o’clock shows the bank is well defined, at 4 and 8 o’clock the tube shape changes from dark to pale. At 10 and 4 o’clock the bank is also well defined.
This part of the tube shape is a near perfect parabola as shown, unlikely to occur by chance. The tube shape is also about the same height and width wherever seen, it does not vary much randomly like a natural formation from weather erosion.
A shows a much thicker wall with a line running along it as a peak, from 4 o’clock to B at 5 o’clock, up to E. This may have been a habitat connected by hollow walls. At 2 and 6 o’clock A shows a clean edge like cement to the dam floor. B at 9 o’clock shows a double wall like a collapsed tube. At 3 o’clock B shows a small hill or dark area. C may be a collapsed hollow hill, the ridge shown may have been an interior support and part of the larger hollow wall. D shows a darker line perhaps a collapsed wall, also a narrow wall like those in Hellas at 1 o’clock second leg.
Four parabolas are shown.
A shows more ridges like grout, these connect into the canal wall at B but do not extend into the canal embankment. C shows regular spacing like tiles at 11 o’clock, squarish tiles at 3 o’clock, and a collapsed tile segment at 6 o’clock. D shows a gap growing between the bank and the wall, also with regular tile spacings. At 6 o’clock second leg there is a ridge like grout. E shows more grout connecting to the canal wall like a single segment. This cannot be cracks then because it must be the same material as the wall, probably cement. F shows more tiles.
A parabola is shown.
Water channels can encompass the conduits feeding dams in crater, they can extend up to the hypothesis of large scale canals. They would have been important, to direct water into dams instead of being dissipated into the ground. Also there are overflow water channels which appear to direct water from an overflowing dam to another so as not to waste water.
These may have been canals or pit dams, they are highly geometric in shape. A shows a dam for water at 12 o’clock, another wall for a dam and channel at 3 to 5 o’clock. B shows a wall for a canal from 2 to 7 o’clock, it has a groove running along the top like a double wall.
Part of a parabola is shown. The lines show how straight parts of the formation are.
A and B show the sides of a water channel, water would have flowed across this at C to another dam. The shape appears so artificial that a natural explanation is hard to sustain.
A parabola is shown.
A shows more dams, turned on its side to fit into the page. B shows a dam wall in good condition at 11 and 3 o’clock, one with cracks at 5 o’clock. C shows more cracks at 5 and 6 o’clock, in good condition at 7 o’clock. D and E also show walls in good condition. F shows more cracks developing.
At least 5 parabolas occur in the formation.
A shows a water channel going into a pit dam, B shows another water channel coming from this from 10 to 4 o’clock, also another water channel at 7 o’clock second leg. C shows a water channel coming from the other side of the pit dam to B. D shows a small water channel connecting two pit dams.
Eight parabolas are shown, though there would also be some smaller ones and the water channel at C.
There are formations that look like cities, these are also clustered around this old Martian equator. Some are also clustered around large extinct volcanoes like Olympus Mons. It adds to the global hypothesis, that these creatures lived together in these buildings in warmer areas.
A shows many rooms, also the walls here appear to be doubled or are collapsed tubes. This is important for the room hypothesis, if someone could go to each room in these tubes then each is accessible. If not then how many could be used is problematic. The thicker ridges also appear hollow at some points elsewhere, B shows a main tube that has some collapsed areas along it. C shows an area that may have eroded to the bare ground, there are faint walls here the same as in the other parts. C at 11 o’clock has very high walls as see from the shadows. Engineers could calculate the height of these walls from the shadow knowing the sun angle from HiRise. The higher the wall the longer the shadow would be inside the room. At C at 8 o’clock the walls are lower as if eroding. D at 5 o’clock shows a rounded formation of rooms like a nexus, at 8 o’clock the walls have collapsed apparently leaving some pillars standing in some cases. E shows a zig zag in this wall or tube, as if the access to it gives straight sections for the entrances. F shows areas where the ceiling appears to have either fallen onto the walls or is still secured above them in parts.
The three dimensional impression is even stronger here, A shows rooms appearing under the smooth ceiling material. B may also be tubes or suspended roads as there is an impression of empty space under them. C at 9 o’clock shows rooms with no ceilings, at 4 o’clock there is still some ceiling or they are full of soil. D at 9 o’clock is like a hill of rooms, at 1 and 2 o’clock there is a road like formation that goes on to 12 and 2 o’clock. The letter E is in a depression surrounded by higher rooms like at 7 and 8 o’clock. F shows more variations in the elevations of the rooms from the shadow. G has many straight walls and may have right angles from directly above it. The rooms at H appear to be partially eroded.
A at 10 o’clock shows a hill with room like shapes on its lower side, at 3 and 5 o’clock are more rooms. B and C show many walled rooms. D shows rooms that may be partially buried by the dark soil, or they ended in this open area. E shows more degraded rooms, F at 10 o’clock shows a nexus where many walls converge to it. At 3 and 4 o’clock there are perhaps rooms under the dark soil. G at 10, 12, and 1 o’clock as well as H at 12 o’clock follow this edge of the rooms, this section may be an intact ceiling with rooms under it.
There are many lines here showing how straight the walls are, but many more could have been drawn as well.
Some individual formations look like large buildings, sometimes incorporating parabolas.
A may show some collapsed hollow hills. B shows some straight ridges, perhaps interior supports of this larger formation. From C to D is a curved interior support. E may be a collapsed section, F shows some tubes or walls.
There are two parabolas in this formation, as well as the straight walls.
The hills often shows collapsed segments on their roofs so being hollow is implied. That adds to the hypothesis, that they lived in these hollow hills, and travelled between them on these roads.
The top of the layer here is shown at A at 12 o’clock, at 10 o’clock is a tube. B shows multiple layers under it, this may be the construction technique. C shows a broken wall segment at 8 o’clock second leg, this may be two thinner layers broken together. At the first leg is a tube. At 9 o’clock second leg is another broken layer. At 6 o’clock the tube appears to come from here, this has a collapsed side and a gap between it and 8 o’clock first leg. At 12 o’clock the texture of the roof is different to the wall layers.
Three parabolas are shown, like a parabolic wave. This can be an approximation to ocean waves which are elliptical.
A shows tubes or eroded segments on the roof. B shows contours which may have been used for strengthening the roof. C shows a settled area. D shows many parabolic arcs to strengthen the roof at 9 and 10 o’clock, at 2 o’clock there is an exposed grid perhaps used for reinforcing the roof.
Three parabolas are shown, there are several more but these are the clearest. The axis of symmetry of each is closely aligned but each parabola is smaller than the one surrounding it.
This may be a Cobler Dome where the parabolic layers of bricks are exposed. They are less visible at A at 10 o’clock, at 4 o’clock the top of the hill may be peeling off. B shows a smooth skin like cement that may have broken off on the upper side exposing the layers. C shows the parabolic layers, D shows two skins that have eroded away exposing the arcs.
Three parabolas are shown, there are several more which are too faint. Straight ridges are also overlaid by lines.
A shows the curved segments of the hollow hill roof. B may be a collapsed segment of the roof. C at 2 and 4 o’clock may be a tube, at 5 o’clock an interior support with some settled segments of the roof around it. D at 1 o’clock may show a tunnel going into the hill continuing on at 4 o’clock perhaps as a collapsed tube.
The edge of the rounded segment of the roof forms a parabola, the flat side lines up well with the latis rectum, or line through the focus.
The hypothesis is that these may have been used for farming, or for pools of water containing fish.
These walls are much straighter and with more right angles between them.
The walled fields are in better condition here, without gaps. A shows some joins with little erosion, at 8 o’clock however is a much more eroded wall.
B shows an eroded wall at 10 o’clock and where one wall passes over another at 7 o’clock. C shows a much thicker wall between 6 and 10 o’clock, this extends under a wall to a thin wall between 1 and 4 o’clock at D. E shows some wall erosion at 3 and 9 o’clock.
The lines indicate how straight the walls are.
This shows how many walls are hollow. The wall at A at 6 and 7 o’clock has collapsed indicating it was a tube. At 4 and 8 o’clock the walls are intact, it implies these tubes would give a passage in and out of the hills. B shows more collapsed walls, at 3 o’clock one goes into a small hill perhaps a habitat. Above C at 10 o’clock the tube has partially collapsed, the wall forms a side of this hill. At 5, 7, and 8 o’clock the walls have collapsed, at 4 o’clock the wall goes into another hill which may be a habitat. D, F, and G shows more collapsed walls. E shows more narrow walls going through a possible habitat at 2 o’clock.
A shows a possible habitat at 4 o’clock, B shows two others at 8 and 11 o’clock. These may be like the typical hill in this area when the outer skin erodes away. A at 6 o’clock shows many fine walls or tubes going into a nexus at B at 4 o’clock, also with a circle of walls around it. This would be similar to Earth roads where a central meeting place might be bypassed with this ring road. C shows more walls, D shows how they go into a hill at 6 and 9 o’clock. This hill is much flatter, it connects the hypothesis of the other hills in the image being like for example Held1232. It appears as if the roof has collapsed onto the ground. E shows a wider wall coming out of the hill at A.
A also implies the hill is artificial, it is approximately parallel to the Latis Rectum of the parabolic wall. B is probably a collapsed hill at 8 o’clock, a wall comes out of it at 7 o’clock. C also shows a network of walls coming out of a hill. The walls at D appear more eroded.
A parabola is shown, also the lines indicate how straight the walls are.
A appear to show a water channel or perhaps roadway, perhaps water could come through here and fill some of the walled areas. B shows some of these walls, C shows a parabola. D shows another curved wall, probably a parabola but not long enough to check. Shows many walled fields with smaller walls subdividing them.
A parabola is shown, also the lines show how straight the walls are.
Some formations also look like roads, they often appear between hills that are hollow. The hypothesis these hills are buildings, either completely constructed or adapted from geological formations. It further ads to the global hypothesis, we use roads and so we might expect Martians to have built them to travel between buildings and cities.
The hollow hill has collapsed at A, B shows a straight wall still standing. C shows another road going into the hill perhaps with two lanes, this extends to D at 10 and 1 o’clock. There may be another road at 7 o’clock.
This is a closeup of a road, much smoother than the surrounding terrain like cement. It extends past A to B where a tube or raised road intersects it. C shows this tube going down from 10 o’clock, then possibly at 6 and 7 o’clock into the crater.
A shows the road continuing on over the pale material, B and C also show pits like altered craters perhaps with the same road material to act as dams.
This closeup of the road shows right angled shapes in it, perhaps like bricks or tiles. This impression continues along the road where it seems to vary in an angular rather than a smooth way. The center is very smooth compared to the surrounding terrain as shown by comparing A at 1 and 5 o’clock. B shows a shape like a gutter along the road’s side. C shows a small pit at 10 o’clock that appears to be connected to the road, perhaps a former hollow hill, at 2 o’clock is an angular section on the side of the road.
A shows more roads, they connect to a crater at 5 o’clock. B shows a road at 6 o’clock going into a small hollow hill, another at 4 o’clock going into a hollow hill. C shows a road connecting to a complex of hollow hills. D and E show many more roads connecting to hollow hills. F and G show roads connecting to the large crater. H shows a major intersection going up the image.
A further hypothesis is that some roads were enclosed like tubes. These hypothetical Martians then could have travelled through them to avoid the cold, predators, meteors, etc. Some may also have been raised roads, for example the ground may have been swampy or covered in water. So, much as we do on Earth, they may have built roads raised above this ground to travel on.
A shows a curved tube going from the walled hill at 4 and 5 o’clock to the small crater at 1 o’clock. B at 8’clock shows the walls of the hill, at 7 o’clock a tube comes out of the hill, at 1 and 4 o’clock are two more hollow hills. D shows the curved tube, it connects to another tube shown by B at 8 o’clock. At 9 o’clock is a small tube from the larger one, at 10 o’clock the smaller hill appears to have collapsed. This main tube continues up through E to the right.
Two parabolas are shown.
A shows a hollow hill with cavities in the roof, it connects to a wider part of the hill at 6 o’clock. This has a twisted shape like a rope, it continues on through the twisted tube at B to connect to a collapsing hill at 2 o’clock. At 8 o’clock there is another tube. At 3 o’clock the roof has collapsed. D shows another tube going into the hill at 8 o’clock, this connects to the tube at 5 o’clock. This in turn connects to the hill above D with tubes at right angles to it. E shows a collapsed roof at 10 o’clock, at 11 o’clock is a tube. Bat E at 12 o’clock up to F at 6 o’clock is a symmetrical wall.
A shows more tubes between collapsed hills. B shows layers in the hill at 2 o’clock like a Cobler Dome. At 11 o’clock the tube from the chain of hills enters the hollow hill. At 3 o’clock is a thicker tube connected to a small hill. C at 8 o’clock shows the circular roof of the hill, it contains two parabolas, at 4 o’clock a tube goes into a small hill with a cavity on the roof. From 11 to 3 o’clock are other tubes. D at 5 o’clock shows the edge of this circular roof, the rest of D shows other tubes. E shows an arc of tubes connected to some collapsing hills.
The roof is close to a circle, here a circle is overlaid onto it. Also two parabolas are drawn onto the dark marks on the roof.
A from 5 to 7 o’clock shows two collapsed hills connected by a tube, the holes in the roof may have been rooms. At 8 o’clock is a tube. B at 10 o’clock shows a collapsed hill connected by a tube to A at 7 o’clock. B from 4 to 7 o’clock shows small hills connected by tubes, also some tubes go to the crater under it. C at 6 o’clock shows many tubes connected to the crater, at 7 o’clock a tube goes through a collapsed hill over to 4 o’clock and then up to the nexus at F at 1 o’clock. At 4 o’clock a forked tube comes out of a collapsed hill. C from 10 to 2 o’clock shows a tube coming out of the collapsed hill continuing over to the nexus. D and E show more tubes connecting to the hills and over to the crater at E at 4 o’clock.
The hypothesis is these large numbers of tubes connected together to form habitats and cities. Some of these may have been underground, others connect to artificial looking hills.
A shows a wavy tube, B shows a clear area surrounded by tubes like a field. C shows tubes going into a crater at 6 and 8 o’clock, at 1 o’clock they go into a rounded area, also shown by F at 10 o’clock, under a nexus. D shows more tubes going into this nexus. E at 6 o’clock shows an intersection of tubes then this goes down, making a right angled turn into a hollow hill at F at 1 o’clock. E at 12 o’clock shows a T intersection, at 4 o’clock there are about four faint parallel tubes going up the image. F at 7 and 8 o’clock shows tubes going into three collapsed hills, also shown by G. H may be a large habitat, at 9 o’clock a tube crosses other tubes at 10 o’clock going up to I at 2,4, and 6 o’clock and a collapsed hill. At 10 and 11 o’clock faint tubes go into the crater. J shows more tubes going into the collapsed hill.
The tubes come together in a large nexus here, there also seems to be flat areas like cement over the tubes. These might act as a roof with rooms under them. A shows a tube crossing another at 2 o’clock, this connects to another tube at 10 o’clock. At 6 o’clock is the edge of the outer circular shape of the nexus. This may have allowed movement around the nexus without going into the centre, like an Earth ring road in many cities. B shows a continuation of the ring road at 3 o’clock, a forked tube at 10 o’clock and at 9 o’clock, and a narrow fork at 8 o’clock. C shows a larger tube at 10 o’clock where it appears to end on top of a small platform. At 1 o’clock the tube is hollow like the roof collapsed. D shows a tube ending at 11 o’clock, some tubes crossing at right angles in a mesh at 2 o’clock. E shows two tubes parallel to each other, further along one tube crosses over the other like a knot. F shows a small hill connecting to the tube at 3 o’clock, a loop of a tube at 5 o’clock with a central tube. From 8 to 10 o’clock is the flattened part of the nexus, whether from erosion or a roof. G shows a small nexus.
A shows a large nexus at 4 o’clock, it appears to have flat sheets of cement over it so some segments might be rooms. At 1 and 2 o’clock parallel tubes go to the nexus. B shows a squarish area surrounded by tubes, at 7 o’clock there are more like squarish walled segments. At 1 o’clock the crater appears to have been overed over on the right side or this can be an exposed room in the nexus. A wider tube is at 5 o’clock. C shows a T intersection of tubes at 1 o’clock, the tube goes down crossing a long hill at 5 o’clock going into a crater. Another tube crosses the hill from 6 to 7 o’clock. D shows another nexus at 2 o’clock again with flattened segments of a roof. At 4 o’clock this connects to a hill collapsing in many areas. Parallel tubes are shown at 1 o’clock. E shows more tubes, some going into a crater at 4 o’clock. F shows an arc of parallel tubes. G shows tubes exiting under the collapsing hill.
A shows many parallel tubes going through the long hill, continuing as E and E to the large nexus between E and F. This is a flat sheet like a roof in many areas. A at 5 o’clock and D at 7 o’clock show tubes crossing the parallel tubes so someone could have moved from one to another more easily. Above I there are nine parallel tubes going to the nexus, B shows about eight more parallel tubes. Under this is H with a grid or mesh of tubes, this continues on through C with more meshed tubes to the nexus. F shows about six more parallel tubes from 8 to 11 going to the nexus, between E and F there are about twelve more tubes going into the nexus. Between F and G there are about seven more tubes going to the nexus, many more of these form a tube mesh as well.
Some areas appear to be bounded, the hypothesis is they were farmlands or walled off for some reason. Often they have a parabolic boundary.
The hypothesis is that these large areas were farms, they are often bounded by parabolas with walls. We have something similar on Earth, we build walled fields and larger farms.
A, B, and C show many parallel tubes inside this farming area. Some connect to the craters at A at 7 o’clock. Between A and B there are about six parallel tubes, between B and C there are about four. B from 2 to 4 o’clock shows a tube going into the crater. D shows where many of these tubes converge, there may have been a hollow hill here. E at 7 o’clock shows a small hill and a straight tube extends up the image.
A parabola is shown. Also the line shows how straight the long tube is.
These curved shapes may have been used for agriculture. Found in many areas of Mars the boundaries are often parabolas. A shows a road or tube going into a crater, B shows the other side of this road and one of the curved pale areas. C shows more of these often shaped as parabolas. At 4 o’clock there is a wall or tube according to the shadows. D shows another tube at 12 o’clock, at 2 o’clock is the other side of the hollow hill. At 7 o’clock is a paler segment of the field. E shows more curved fields and a tube at 3 o’clock going down to a hollow hill at 6 o’clock. F shows another segment of the tube. G shows a tube going to the large crater at 7 o’clock. H, I, J, and K show more tubes and hollow hills.
Three parabolas are shown, however the pale curves may all have been parabolas.
Many walls and pale fields are shown, these may also have been farms.
Three parabolas are shown.
These may have been walled fields as often seen near Cydonia. B shows two collapsed hills from 5 to 7 o’clock, C may show tubes or roads in the field. D shows a tube between two craters at 12 o’clock. At 3 and 4 o’clock is a hill connected to a crater.
Five parabolas are shown.
The hypothesis is that some water channels and canals connect to larger artificial lakes. This is also something we do on Earth.
A shows the double walls of this dam at 0 o’clock, also a small cavity in the wall at 8 o’clock. This connects to a star shaped wall from 7 o’clock to 3 o’clock. B shows this dam wall is intact at 10 o’clock, there is a wavy wall like some tubes at 7 o’clock. At 8 o’clock one of the walls is much shorter. C shows this double dam wall continuing at 5 and 9 o’clock, the wall at 12 o’clock has broken up into segments on its end. D shows another walled segment of the dam, below 10 o’clock the wall is more eroded. At 4 o’clock there is a small entrance between the walls.
A parabola is shown. The axis of symmetry goes approximately through the centre of the star.The focus is also in line with the dam wall between E and F, the latis rectum or line through the focus would then approximately be an extension of this wall. A line is drawn from E to F to illustrate this.
Eight parabolas are shown. This is a good example of how natural looking areas in a crater can be looked at more carefully. With a closeup there cold be even six more parabolas here.
Many tubes come out of this formation, A at 8 and 9 o’clock shows a tube intersection. At 3 o’clock is another tube from the pit wall. B shows two more tubes, below the one at 4 o’clock are two small enclosures, also another two between there and C at 8 o’clock. These may all be dams including the large pits. C at 7 o’clock shows many faint tubes coming out of the pit wall. D at 9 o’clock shows the pit wall is doubled with a groove between them. At 5, 6, and 7 o’clock the pit wall is very even and rounded, at 3 o’clock is another tube coming out of the pit wall. E at 12 o’clock shows one of the pale formations inside the pit, these may have been hollow hills and have a similar albedo to parts of the pit walls. At 2 and 9 o’clock the pit wall gets thicker, this part has a roof like a tube but to the right and left it becomes a groove again. It’s likely then most of these pit walls are hollow.
The lines show how straight the tubes are. Also six parabolas are shown to fit onto the edges of the pit dams.
The hypothesis is that two hyperbolas were constructed, the one shown here is close to the old Martian equator.
This shows a nearly perfect hyperbola forming a tangent to the large crater, and to a smaller crater on the left.
This shows a hyperbola overlaid onto the formation, it shows it is nearly a perfect hyperbola. It deviates a small amount to the left at A as if affected by the gravity of passing near a planet or moon. B at the top of the image shows two other walls, C shows a road like shape connecting to the crater. B in the crater shows concentric circles which might indicate orbits around the sun, or the surface of a planet with the outer circle being the atmosphere. D is a line or chord drawn as a tangent to the smaller crater, it is at right angles to the vertical transverse axis, the dark line which nearly bisects the large crater. With the inaccuracies inherent from the age of this formation, also in fitting the hyperbola, this may have been intended to go through the center of the crater.
In this introduction is the beginnings of the global hypothesis, explain in more details in the Martian Hypotheses books. There are hypothetical dams to collect water, also canals, water channels and lakes. There are two kinds of hypothetical cities, one based on more conventional rooms and walls. The other appears to be based on interconnected tubes. Hypothetical buildings are shown with collapsed areas like rooms. These are often connected with roads and tubes to each other and to farms, canals, dams, craters, and the oceans. With this overview the additional images in these books shows how these hypotheses repeat in many areas and extend into a more detailed global hypothesis.